Just as the Lithium battery was a step up from the Lead Acid battery, the Sodium Silicate (Water Glass) crystal battery is a step up from Lithium.
These new Sodium Glass batteries are meant to last 3 times longer than Lithium batteries and charge twice as quickly, which will revolutionize the Electric Car industry, and many other areas and activities.
Easy enough to make from common materials, for anyone who likes to experiment and/or who may use a lot of batteries to power their lights and so on.
Crystalline Cat litter or Silica Gel (Sodium Silicate) or washing soda crystals might do, found in the laundry aisle
Caustic Soda or Lye Drain cleaner (100% Sodium Hydroxide) (but KOH or potash might do instead) (this is the electrolyte)
An old car or motorbike Lead-acid battery that has given up the ghost, may also work with a small square 9 Volt battery, or make a new battery from copper pipe and either a magnesium rod or parts from a toy battery (tech notes 4, 5 and 6)
Steel pot or large bowl and a steel mixing spoon
A funnel for pouring the water glass if necessary, and a friend to assist you
A steel strainer if necessary, or something to spread the water glass evenly onto a separator, depending on the type of cells your making
Neutralize and empty the old car battery by soaking with baking-soda water, and ideally clean and re-set the plates if possible, or even make a completely new battery with cells of your own design using metal, scrap battery parts, molds/containers and optionally graphene plated cathodes and anodes
Arrange electrodes inside the molds/containers, for example a drinks-can mold can accommodate long rolled-up metal sheets (electrodes), an insulator, and some kind of porous separator ready to absorb the sodium electrolyte (see tech notes 1 and 2)
Place Cat litter into a plastic bag in stages and crush it gently with a hammer, to increase the surface area and speed up the dissolving process
Make outdoors or in a well ventilated area where you won't be disturbed and observe chemical handling safety conditions - long sleeves and pants, shoes, gloves and goggles in case of splashes, optionally a face shield and goggles, stand or sit upwind so as not to breathe the fumes
Put 500ml (half a quart) of cold Water into steel mixing bowl
Gradually add 200g (2/5 pound) of Caustic Soda and stir until dissolved - the water will get hotter
Gradually add 300g (3/5 pound) of Soda Crystals or crushed crystalline Cat litter - the water will get hotter
To make a smaller amount, use the measurements 50g water, 20g electrolyte and 30g crystal
Keep stirring and begin to heat gently until everything is dissolved, remove the heat occasionally to check liquid, you want the chemicals to dissolve before the water boils off, add a little more water if needed
Filter with a steel strainer to remove any solids if needed (the strainer may be placed inside the funnel if required)
Pour the Water Glass liquid (syrup) into the new battery cells as new electrolyte
Allow to set (Carbon Dioxide speeds up the process, and possibly blowing on the surface will produce a hard skin)
Experiment with both charging and not charging (tech notes 3), and also charging while still hot, and remember to observe safety rules
John B Goodenough (age 94) Also invented the Lithium battery many years ago.
You will want the sodium electrolyte to cover all the area in each cell. If you have very narrow distance between your plates, you could try putting the hot cell inside a vacuum, possibly using a mason jar and a quiet fridge compressor (tech notes 7 and 8) , and when activated the vacuum should draw the air bubbles from the cell. Am not sure if this will work with the crystal as it does with oil for high voltage coils. If your just using normal electrolyte, like salt water or lemon water, you can probably skip the vacuum part.
To increase viscosity, you could heat the empty cell in an oven so that when you pour the electrolyte it will fill all the gaps more fluidly. Be careful not to melt any plastic separator or insulator you have inside.
These batteries are meant to self charge, so as soon as you pour the electrolyte you should treat the battery as electrically "live".
Separator material can be an unrolled strip of plastic scouring pad for example, or porous cloth with lots of gaps for the electrolyte.
Insulator material can be some HDPE plastic from milk cartons, cut into strips wide enough (HDPE recycling page)
Electrodes (cathode and anode) can be aluminium foil, copper foil, magnesium, carbon, charcoal, sanded drink-can aluminium, nickel (from coins), graphite, etc.
A fridge compressor will act as a comparatively quiet vacuum source, and also a pressure source, but removing it from a fridge takes a very skilled technician, there are hazardous materials to consider.
Fixings can be inserted into glass by melting the area with a HHO torch, but practice first to see how much area you have to heat to prevent cracking. it may help to heat the parts in an oven first. You should be sure of what you are doing if you attempt to melt things with a HHO torch
If you want to make your own crystal battery, the two easiest options are to use parts from existing batteries, like AA or D cells, or make one from scratch using a piece of copper pipe and some zinc or zinc plated bolts from the hardware shop.