Electricity is generated when a moving magnet passes a copper wire at 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its length.
This process is made more efficient by winding the single wire into many loops (a coil), and using more than one magnet, for example on a rotating disk.
A motor works the same as a generator but in reverse.
In this short video a simple home-made motor has a rotating magnet which "cuts" the wire loops at 90 degrees to the length, or rather the pulsating electromagnetic effect of the coil causes a turning motion in the magnetic rotor.
A Keppe / Newman motor can run at 12 volts aswel as high voltage, depending on the number of coil windings
Several coils can be connected together and arranged to give more voltage or current, depending on the number of turns (loops) and the thickness of the "magnet wire", such as the Stator in a wind turbine.
Your generator should be arranged to make the most efficient use of the magnetic effect. If you have a lot of wire, you need bigger magnets.
The blue shaded areas in the images below show where electricity is generated in those coils.
Traditionally, magnets were moved past a coil on one end, but the magnetic threads are in a fan shape and only generate electricity in the central part (Coil B).
When a pair of magnets are arranged either side of the coil (below), a magnetic concentration is found between the magnets, and if the coil occupies this space as the magnets move it will experience a strong magnetic effect at the correct angle for making electricity, like the two rotors in the wind turbine image above.
In a Keppe motor and a Newman motor the magnets are rotating together inside the coil, and as you can see from the dark blue areas in the diagram below, the coil can be wound to such a size and shape so that the copper wires meet the magnetic threads at perpendicular angles.
There seems to be a difference between the diagrams above and the ACTUAL angles of the magnetic threads (lines of force). Naturally you should build for accuracy.
Also you may notice from the illustrations that there are different magnetic fields around a single magnet and around a pair of magnets.
More information on Magnets and how they really work
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