Electricity is generated when a moving magnet passes a copper wire at 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its length.

This process is made more efficient by winding the single wire into many loops (a coil), and using more than one magnet, for example on a rotating disk.

A motor works the same as a generator but in reverse.

In this short video a simple home-made motor has a rotating magnet which "cuts" the wire loops at 90 degrees to the length, or rather the pulsating electromagnetic effect of the coil causes a turning motion in the magnetic rotor.

A Keppe / Newman motor can run at 12 volts aswel as high voltage, depending on the number of coil windings

Several coils can be connected together and arranged to give more voltage or current, depending on the number of turns (loops) and the thickness of the "magnet wire", such as the Stator in a wind turbine.

Your generator should be arranged to make the most efficient use of the magnetic effect.  If you have a lot of wire, you need bigger magnets.

The blue shaded areas in the images below show where electricity is generated in those coils.

Traditionally, magnets were moved past a coil on one end, but the magnetic threads are in a fan shape and only generate electricity in the central part (Coil B).

When a pair of magnets are arranged either side of the coil (below), a magnetic concentration is found between the magnets, and if the coil occupies this space as the magnets move it will experience a strong magnetic effect at the correct angle for making electricity, like the two rotors in the wind turbine image above.

In a Keppe motor and a Newman motor the magnets are rotating together inside the coil, and as you can see from the dark blue areas in the diagram below, the coil can be wound to such a size and shape so that the copper wires meet the magnetic threads at perpendicular angles.

There seems to be a difference between the diagrams above and the ACTUAL angles of the magnetic threads (lines of force). Naturally you should build for accuracy. 

Also you may notice from the illustrations that there are different magnetic fields around a single magnet and around a pair of magnets.

More information on Magnets and how they really work


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Comment by Spirality on June 8, 2016 at 20:26

How Electricity travels down a wire.

Atomic Theory: Says that electrons move down the copper wire from positive to negative. But if this were the case, the Copper atoms at each end would transform from Copper into another material as the atomic numbers change. Atomic Theory can't be right because it would lead to atomic transformation, yet is still taught in schools.

Gyroscopic Theory: Put forward by Joseph Newman, it says that when a wire is excited, the atoms align and all spin the same direction, causing an accumulation of directional electricity. This explains why a 90 degree magnetic angle is needed to excite the wire, its to do with gyroscopic procession.

There is also Torsion theory, put forward by Bill Gaede, it says that sub-microscopic electromagnetic "ropes" are twisting between all the wire atoms, going in the same direction (more research needed).

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