Glossary of Western Terms
ACRID:Has biting taste or causes heat/irritation when to the skin.
ALTERATIVE:Indicate a substance which alters a condition by producing a gradual change toward the restoration to health.
ANALGESIC: Relieves or diminishes pain; ANODYNE: Eases pain.
ANAPHRODISIAC: Reduces sexual desire or potency.
ANTHELMINTIC: Expels or destroys intestinal worms.
ANTIBIOTIC: Destroys or arrests the growth of micro-organisms.
ANTICOAGULANT: Prevents clotting in blood, or liquid.
ANTIEMETIC: Counteracts nausea and stops vomiting.
ANTIHYDROTIC: Reduces or supresses perspiration.
ANTIPHLOGISTIC: Reduces inflammation.
ANTIPYRETIC: Prevents or reduces fever.
ANTISEPTIC: Destroys or inhibits bacteria.
ANTISPASMODIC: Prevents or allays spasms or cramps.
ANTITUSSIVE: Relieves coughing. APPETIZER: Stimulates the appetite.
AROMATIC:emit a fragrant smell and produce a pungent taste.
ASTRINGENT: Causes contraction of tissues.
BALSAMIC: A healing or soothing agent.
BITTER TONIC: Bitter tasting properties which stimulate flow of saliva and gastric juice. increase the appetite and aid the process of digestion.
CARDIAC: Agents which have an effect on the heart.
CARMINATIVE: Expels gas from the stomach, intestines or bowels.
CATHARTIC: Causes evacuation from the bowels.There are different
types of cathartics.Aperient/laxatives are mild and gentle in their actions. Purgatives are powerful and produce copious evacuations and are used only by adults afflicted with stubborn conditions.
CHOLAGOGUE: Increases the flow of bile and promotes it's ejection.
DEMULCENT: Soothing, bland. Used to relieve internal inflammations.
Provides a protective coating and allays irritation of the membranes.
DIGESTIVE: Aids digestion.
DIAPHORETICS:increase eliminative secretions through sweat glands, thus faciliting elimination of toxic and accumulative waste matter.
DISINFECTANT:Cleans infection by destroying harmful micro-organisms.
DIURETICS:promote secretions of the urinary system, increasing toxic elimination and accumulative matter along with excess water.
EMETICS:induce vomiting and are usually anti-poisonous.
EMMENAGOGUES:act upon the reproductive system by strengthening and balancing the cellular tissues by regulating the body's hormonal flow.Also move blood.
EMOLLIENTS:soothe and soften the external skin surfaces and promote healing by removing foreign toxic matter through absorption.
EXPECTORANTS:act upon the mucosal membranes of the respiratory tract, facilitating catarrhal discharge.
FEBRIFUGE: Reduces fever.
GALACTAGOGUE: Promotes the secretion of milk from the nursing breast.
HEMOSTATIC: Capable of slowing down or stopping hemorrhage.
HEPATIC: Acts on the liver. HYPNOTIC: Capable of inducing sleep.
MUCILAGINOUS: Emits a soothing quality to inflamed parts.
NERVINES:regenerate entire nervous system,having a calming effect, by altering deranged nervous tissues and neutralizing toxins, that cause irritation of the nerve fibers.
NUTRIENT or NUTRITIVE: Nourishing.
REJUVENATOR: An agent which imparts renewed vigor.
RUBEFACIENT: A substance used externally which causes redness and
increased blood supply when rubbed into the skin.
RESTORATIVE: Restores consciousness or normal physical activity.
SEDATIVE: Calms the nerves. SOPORIFIC: Induces sleep.
STIMULANTS: Equalizes circulation and regenerates the tissues of the arterial system.
SUDORIFICS: Increases perspiration, thus facilitating the elimination of toxic waste through the skin.
STOMACHIC: Stimulate the flow of digestive secretions and increases the volume.
STYPTIC: Contracts the blood vessels and stops bleeding.
TONICS: Tones the alimentive tract, thus correcting problems of the digestive system. Promotes regeneration of tissues throughout the body.
TOPICAL: Applied to the skin only.
VASOCONSTRICTOR: Narrows the blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
VERMIFUGES: Kills and/or expels parasites or worms.
VULNERARY: Tone and heal the muscular and skeletal systems and are
often employed along with emollients as a poultice for external wounds.



Traditional Chinese Medicine
The language of Chinese medicine is very different but can be roughly translated into concepts the western mind is familiar with , words we are becoming familiar with are Qi , Yin and Yang.Qi can roughly translated as Energy, Yin - Blood or female energy and Yang - Male Energy When these energies are in balance we have health, where there is imbalance there is ill health.
We look at symptoms of illness as symptoms of imbalance, the symptoms pointing us to where the imbalance is.

Terms used:
Yang: Warming, Sweet, Pungent, Energising
Yin: Cooling, Salty, Bitter, Sour, Builds blood and fluids

Damp would be noticeable as phlegm , fluid retention, sinusitis, glue ear, etc
Dry symptoms would be dry skin, feeling dry, dry eyes etc

Sweet: Acts of Spleen/Stomach Emotion: Worry/Anxiety
Bitter: Acts on Heart/Small intestine Emotion: Joy
Pungent: Acts on Lungs/Large intestine Emotion: Grief/Sadness
Salty: Acts on Kidneys/Bladder Emotion: Fear/Fright/Paranoia
Sour; Acts on Liver/Gallbladder Emotion: Anger/Impatience/Depression

Small amount tonifies, large amounts damage the organ.

Hot/Cold/Warm/Cooling are the temperature classification of the herb. We match the temperature classification of the herb to the temperature constitution of the person.
e.g Insomnia. Valerian is a warming herb, Scullcap a Cooling herb.
We match a person with insomnia who generally feels hot to Scullcap and the person who generally feels cold to Valerian. If we gave the hot person Valerian it would more than likely aggravate their condition as it would aggravate the heat.
If you feel Hot and have a red tongue and fast pulse the you are Hot . Cool or neutral foods would be benefical.Avoid, Hot, Spicy, Pungent.
If you feel Cold and have a pale tongue with a slow pulse the warm,hot and neutral foods are beneficial. Avoid Cold and Damp foods e.g excess dairy,salad etc.

CHICKWEED
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Astringent, Demulcent, Discutient, Emollient, Febrifuge, Laxative, Nutritive, Refrigerant, Respiratory Tonic, Vulnerary, Yin Tonic.
Internal Uses: Asthma, Bladder Irritation, Bronchitis, Constipation, Cough, Eczema, Laryngitis, Mouth Sores, Obesity, Rheumatism, Throat Ulcers, Thyroid Irregularities, Ulcers
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Chickweed is soothing and helps to dissolve mucus, warts and cysts in the body. It is an herb traditionally given to strengthen the frail. Chickweed's natural lecithin content, which helps the body metabolize fats, may be why this herb has long been used as a remedy for obesity.
Topical Uses: Burns, Conjunctivitis, Diaper Rash, Itchy Skin, Mouth Sores, Nettle Sting, Psoriasis, Varicose Veins
Topical Applications: Use as a bath herb, compress, poultice, salve. Used especially for burns, itchy skin, diaper rash, nettle sting, psoriasis, varicose veins, and eczema. Fresh juice is applied to eyes in cases of infection such as conjunctivitis.
Culinary uses: Salad, soup, stir-fry dishes Energetics: Sweet, Salty, Moist, Cool.
Contraindications: Excess use may cause diarrhea.

BLACKBERRY Parts Used: Leaves, root bark (stronger), fruit.
Properties: Alterative, Astringent, Blood /Yin/UterineTonic, Diuretic, Hemostatic, Nutritive, Refrigerant, Tonic, Internal Uses: Anemia, Bedwetting, Bleeding, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Fever, Hemorrhoids, Infertility
Internal Applications: Tea, Capsule, Syrup.
The tannins in Blackberry contribute to the plant's ability to treat diarrhea and dysentery, as well as to constrict blood vessels, which inhibits bleeding.
Topical Uses: Bleeding Gums, Insect Bites, Mouth Sores, Oily Skin, Sore Throat, Wounds
Topical Applications: Facial wash for oily skin. Mouthwash for sores and weak gums. Gargle for sore throat. Wash for wounds. Poultice on insect bites. Leaves are chewed to treat bleeding gums.
Culinary uses: Raw, pies, tarts, jam. Liqueurs, wine, brandy. Energetics: Sweet, Sour, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Overindulgence can cause constipation or diarrhea and inhibit menstrual bleeding

BURDOCK Parts Used: Root, seeds.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antitumor, Aphrodisiac, Demulcent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Galactagogue, Hypoglycemic, Laxative, Mucilaginous, Nutritive, Rejuvenative .
Internal Uses: Abscess, Acne, Anger, Cancer, Candida, Chickenpox, Colds, Cough, Cystitis, Dandruff, Eczema, Edema, Fasting, Fever, Flu, Gout, Hives, Hypoglycemia, Indigestion, Irritability, Jaundice, Keratosis, Lymphatic Congestion, Measles, Mumps, Obesity, Pain, Pneumonia, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Scabies, Sore Throat, Sprains, Staphylococcus, Urinary Infections, Uterine Prolapse
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules. Juice is drunk to rid the body of scabies and mites.
It is a mild laxative. Burdock aids in the elimination of uric acid. The herb contains polyacetylenes that have antibacterial and antifungal properties. By improving the function of many organs of elimination (liver, kidneys, bowels) many health conditions can be improved.
Topical Uses: Bruises, Dandruff, Glandular Swelling, Gout, Joint Pain, Knee Swelling, Oily Skin, Ringworm, Sprains
Topical Applications: Bath for sore joints and gout. Compress for glandular swellings, knee swellings, sprains and bruises. Hair rinse for dandruff. Facial toner for oily skin. Bruised leaves are applied to ringworm.
Culinary uses: Young leaves can be cooked in several changes of water and eaten as a potherb. Stalks (before flowering) may be peeled and eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. Root is added to soup, stew, stir fry and sukiyaki. Roots can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute. Energetics: Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid seeds during first trimester of pregnancy.

BUGLEWEED Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Antitussive, Aromatic, Astringent, Cardiotonic, Hemostatic, Narcotic, Vasoconstrictor, Sedative.
Internal Uses: Anxiety, Catarrh, Cough, Grave's Disease, Hyperthyroidism, Palpitations, Thyroid Enlargement
Internal Applications: Tea (use fresh, not dried), Tincture (made from fresh plant).
One of the main uses of Bugleweed is to reduce the activity of an overactive thyroid and the racing heart that often accompanies that condition. It calms the spirit and quiets the pulse and heartbeat, thus helping palpitations due to nerves.
Topical Uses: Bruises Topical Applications: Liniment or poultice for bruises.
Energetics: Bitter, Pungent, Warm.
Contraindications: Avoid during pregnancy. Best to combine with demulcent herbs.

CELANDINE Parts Used: Root, leaves, latex.
Properties: Alterative, Anodyne, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Cholagogue, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Narcotic, Purgative, Sedative.
Topical Uses: Corns, Eczema, Eye Soreness, Herpes, Ringworm, Warts Fresh juice is applied to warts, ringworm, eczema and corns. Topical Applications: Plant is steeped in warm water and used as an eyewash. Salve for herpes.
Energetics: Bitter, Cool.
Contraindications: Use only when prescribed by a qualified herbalist or health practitioner. Large doses may cause drowsiness, coughing and ulcerations. Use only in minute dosages. Only dried root should be used internally. Urine may become bright yellow. Avoid during pregnancy.

CLEAVERS Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Anti-inflammatory, Antitumor, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypotensive, Lymphatic Cleanser, Refrigerant, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Adenoid Enlargement, Arthritis, Bladder Stones, Cancer, Cystitis, Eczema, Epilepsy, Glandular Fever, Hepatitis, Kidney Stones, Mastitis, Ovarian Cysts, Poor Appetite, Psoriasis, Swollen Lymph, Tonsillitis, Tumors, Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Venereal Disease
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Juice
The juice is used internally for cancer and venereal disease. Cleavers can help the feeling of needing to urinate when one cannot do so. Cleavers clears heat and reduces inflammation. It improves lymphatic function and cleanses the kidneys.
Topical Uses: Acne, Burns, Cancer, Dandruff, Eczema, Psoriasis, Sunburn, Tumors, Wounds, Wrinkles
Topical Applications: Compress for burns, sunburn, wounds. Salve for psoriasis. Hair rinse for dandruff. Facial wash and toner for acne, eczema, psoriasis and loose sagging skin. Mouthwash for canker sores. Poultice on tumors and cancers.
Culinary uses: Young spring greens may be cooked as a vegetable. Seeds are roasted and used as a coffee substitute. Ancient Greeks would weave the plant together to make a sieve for straining herbs and milk. Once used to curdle milk in cheese production.
Energetics: Bitter, Salty, Cool, Dry.
Interaction; Loop Diuretics, spironolactone, Thiazide Diuretics, Triamterene.

COLTSFOOT Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, buds.
Properties: Analgesic, Anticatarrhal, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Antitussive, Astringent, Demulcent, Diuretic, Emollient, Expectorant, Immune Stimulant.
Internal Uses: Asthma, Bronchitis, Colds, Cough, Diarrhea, Emphysema, Flu, Gastritis, Laryngitis, Lung Cancer, Tuberculosis, Wheezing, Whooping Cough
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Syrup.
The soothing expectorant properties of Coltsfoot make it useful for treating a wide range of respiratory ailments. It is thought to stimulate the movement of mucus out of the respiratory tract.
Topical Uses: Asthma, Insect Bites, Wounds
Topical Applications: Leaves have been used as a poultice for wounds and insect bites. Coltsfoot has been recommended as a medicinal smoke since the days of Dioscorides.
Culinary uses: Fresh leaves have been eaten in salads. Flowers are used to make wine. The leaves have also been used to wrap cakes of butter. Hence, the folkname Butterbur. Energetics: Pungent, Sweet, Warm, Moist.
Contraindications: The pyrrolizidine alkaloids show hepatotoxicity when fed to rats. However, research in Sweden, shows that this alkaloid is inactivated during heat processing of the plant. The alkaloids have not been found to be harmful in humans. It is still being investigated for liver toxicity, but preparations without the pyrrolizine alkaloids are currently available. However, it is best not to use during pregnancy and nursing until further research is conducted.


COMFREY Parts Used: Leaves, root.
Properties: Anodyne, Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Astringent, Demulcent, Emollient, Expectorant, Hemostatic, Refrigerant, Vulnerary, Yin Tonic.
Topical Uses: Bruises, Burns, Fractures, Hemorrhoids, Skin Dryness, Swellings, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: When applied topically, Comfrey helps to draw infection out of the body. Its constituent allantoin is a known cell proliferant. Use as a bathherb for dry skin. Salves, lotions and poultices for fractures, wounds, bruises, swellings, hemorrhoids, varicosites and burns.
Energetics: Cool, Sweet, Moist.
Contraindications: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids may cause hepatic toxicity, also referred to as veno-occlusive disease. The root is higher in the alkaloid than the leaves. Young leaves are higher in pyrrolizidine than the mature leaves. Other research indicates that Comfrey may have anticancerous activity. Research herbalists are still at odds about this and more research needs to be conducted to determine whether or not Comfrey is safe for external use. Because Comfrey causes rapid wound healing, make sure a wound is clean of any dirt before applying Comfrey.

DANDELION Parts Used: All parts.
Properties: Antifungal, Cholagogue, Diuretic, Expectorant, Galactagogue, Hypotensive, Laxative, Liver Tonic.
Internal Uses: Acne, Anemia, Arthritis, Boils, Constipation, Diabetes, Eczema, Edema, Gallstones, Hepatitis, High Cholesterol, Hypertension, Jaundice, Kidney Stones, Menstrual Problems, Obesity, Psoriasis, Pulmonary Edema, Rheumatism
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Different parts of the herb have different properties. The leaves are a diuretic and hypotensive. The root is an antifungal, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, galactagogue, mild laxative, lithotriptic and liver tonic. Only the leaves are used for edema, while the root is used for diabetes. Both are used for hypertension. It is an excellent herb for weight loss as the leaves are diuretic and the root improves fat metabolism.
Topical Uses: Fungal Infection, Warts, Wounds
Topical Applications: Flowers -poultice wounds. Sap from the stem -to get rid of warts. Wash for fungal infections.
Culinary uses: Leaves are eaten in the spring, before flowering, either raw or cooked. Roots can be cleaned and cooked like carrots or pickled. Roasted roots are made into a coffee substitute. Flowers may be added to muffins or battered and stir-fried. Dandelion wine, made from the flowers, is a delight! So is dandelion beer.
Energetics: Bitter, Sweet, Cold.
Contraindications: Before using root, dry or cook it. Interaction; Loop Diuretics, spironolactone, Thiazide Diuretics, Triamterene.

EYEBRIGHT Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Astringent, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Allergies, Catarrh, Colds, Congestion, Conjunctivitis, Earaches, Eye Weakness, Hay Fever, Light Sensitivity, Rhinitis, Sinusitis
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Eyebright stimulates the liver to clean the blood and it relieves conditions that congest visual clarity.
Topical Uses: Conjunctivitis, Eye Soreness, Leukorrhea, Wounds
Topical Applications: Eyewash, nasal wash, poultice for wounds. Douche for leukorrhea, compress for conjunctivitis.
Culinary uses: Leaves, though slightly bitter, can be added to salads. Energetics: Bitter, Pungent, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid in cases of extreme congestion, which may be worsened by Eyebright's astringent properties.

HONEYSUCKLE Parts Used: Flowers.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Hypoglycemic, Laxative, Refrigerant.
Internal Uses: Asthma, Bacterial Infection, Boils, Breast Cancer, Cough, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Fever, Flu, Food Poisoning, Headache, High Cholesterol, Laryngitis, Lymphatic Congestion, Sore Throat, Ulcers
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Compress, Syrups.
Research in China indicates that Honeysuckle may be helpful in the treatment of breast cancer. Studies show that it helps normalize blood sugar levels. Honeysuckle has a cooling effect upon inflammation, heat and infection.
Topical Uses: Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Rash, Sore Throat, Sunburn, Swellings, Ulcers
Topical Applications: Compress for poison oak or ivy, skin rashes, sunburn and swellings. Gargle for sore throat and ulcerations.
Culinary uses: Buds can be added to stir fry dishes. It is commonly used in cooling summer beverages.
Energetics: Sweet, Bitter, Cold.
Contraindications: Avoid in cases of excess phlegm or inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. Don't use in cases of watery diarrhea, due to internal coldness. Avoid using Honeysuckle berries, which are toxic. The caprifolium and pericylmenum varieties are only used externally.

HORSETAIL Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Hemostatic, Nutritive, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Arthritis, Bedwetting, Blood Loss, Catarrh, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Dysmenorrhea, Eczema, Edema, Fingernail Weakness, Fractures, Hemorrhage, Incontinence, Injury, Kidney Stones, Ligament Tear, Osteoporosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, UlcersInternal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Horsetail is very rich in minerals and can be taken interally to speed the mending of bones, flesh and cartilage, as well as to improve blood coagulation time. Its high silica content strengthens the body's connective tissues and it contains trace amounts of gold, which benefits rheumatoid arthritis. Horsetail is made into a tea to spray on garden plants to prevent fungal attack.
Topical Uses: Conjunctivitis, Gingivitis, Leukorrhea, Wounds
Topical Applications: Use as a poultice for wounds, douche for leukorrhea, eyewash for conjunctivitis, foot soak for malodorous feet, hairwash to strengthen hair, and mouthwash for gingivitis.
Culinary uses: When young, the outer part can be peeled and the inner pulp eaten. Young heads can be boiled 20 minutes, the water changed and reboiled to eliminate bitter principles, after which the shoots are eaten like asparagus. The roots are tuberous and can be eaten raw in the early spring or boiled as a vegetable later in the year. Energetics: Sweet, Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Large amounts can be toxic due to the presence of the alkaloid equisetin. If eaten over a long period of time, it can cause a deficiency in vitamin B-1, as the plant contains an enzyme that destroys B-1. However, cooking and tincturing Horsetail destroys that enzyme, making the Horsetail safe. Horsetail should only be collected in the spring so as to minimize excessive selenium content. Long term use can have irritating effects on the kidneys.
Do not take over a long time or large amounts. Should only be collected in the spring.Be sure of identification.
Possible Interactions:.Other Diuretics medications. Spironolactone, Triamterene.

LADY'S MANTLE Parts Used: Leaves, flowering shoots.
Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Astringent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Liver Decongestant, Vulnerary, Tonic.
Internal Uses: Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Hemorrhage, Menorrhagia, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Rheumatism
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Lady's Mantle aids blood coagulation and promotes tissue healing. It reduces inflammation and clears heat.
Topical Uses: Acne, Conjunctivitis, Freckles, Laryngitis, Leukorrhea, Mouth Sores, Skin Dryness, Vaginal Discharge, Vaginitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice for wounds. Bolus for vaginal discharge, douche for vaginal infection and leukorrhea. Enema. Eyewash for conjunctivitis, mouthwash for sores and following tooth extraction. Gargle for laryngitis. Juice and facial steam for acne. Lotion to soften rough skin and to lighten freckles and birthmarks.
Culinary uses: Young leaves are added to salads. Energetics: Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid during pregnancy, except that it can be taken 10 days before expected birth in order to prevent excessive bleeding. No Known Interaction

MEADOWSWEET Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Analgesic, Antacid, Antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory, Antirheumatic, Urinary Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Sedative, Stomach Tonic.
Internal Uses: Arteriosclerosis, Arthritis, Cellulitis, Cervicitis, Colds, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Dyspepsia, Edema, Epilepsy, Fever, Flu, Gastritis, Gout, Headache, Heartburn, Hyperacidity, Insomnia, Nausea, Pain, Prostatitis, Pulmonary Edema, Rheumatism, Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Vaginitis
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
It is a mild antispasmodic and sedative. Meadowsweet is a forerunner of aspirin as salicylic acid was first synthesized from Meadowsweet in 1835. It is gentler on the stomach than aspirin because Meadowsweet naturally contains buffering agents. Meadowseet clears heat and reduces inflammation. It soothes mucus membranes in the digestive tract and reduces acidity.
Topical Uses: Conjunctivitis, Eye Soreness, Rheumatism
Topical Applications: Eyewash for conjunctivitis and sore eyes. Compress for rheumatic joints. Oil from buds used in perfume. Flowers are soaked in rainwater as a complexion water. The flowers are used as paint brushes. Potpourri.
Culinary uses: Flowers impart an almond fragrance to jam, stewed fruit and wine. Leaves are added to soups. The Shakers used this herb in beer brewing as it enabled them to use less sugar. Energetics: Bitter, Cool.
Contraindications: Avoid if sensitive to salicylates, such as those in aspirin. Interactions: Bismuth Subsalicylate, Ticlopidine.

NETTLE Parts Used: Above ground portion, root, seeds.
Properties: Adrenal Tonic, Astringent, Circulatory Stimulant, Diuretic, Expectorant, Galactagogue, Hemostatic, Hypoglycemic, Kidney Tonic, Nutritive, Respiratory Tonic, Rubefacient, Thyroid Tonic, Tonic, Vermifuge.
Internal Uses: Acne, Allergies, Anemia, Arthritis, Asthma, Bronchitis, Cellulite, Colds, Convalescence, Cough, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Eczema, Edema, Fatigue, Food Allergies, Gout, Hay Fever, Headache, Heart Failure, Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids, Hypertension, Infertility, Jaundice, Kidney Infection, Kidney Inflammation, Kidney Stones, Neuralgia, Night Sweats, Obesity, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Premenstrual Syndrome, Prostatitis, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Rickets, Sinusitis, Tuberculosis, Urinary Infections, Varicose Veins
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Juice.
Only the seeds are a thyroid tonic. The plant is a good tonic for pregnant and nursing mothers. Nettle helps reduce food sensitivities by binding immunoglobulin.
Topical Uses: Arthritis, Asthma, Balding, Dandruff, Gout, Hemorrhoids, Oily Skin, Palsy, Paralysis, Sciatica, Sunburn, Vaginitis
Topical Applications: Shampoo, conditioner and hair rinse for dandruff, stimulation of hair growth and prevention hair loss. Cleanser for oily skin. Astringent facial steam. Sitz bath for hemorrhoids, bath herb for arthritis. Douche for vaginitis. Wash for sunburn. Dried herb has been smoked for asthma. Getting stung by fresh Nettle plants can be therapeutic and is helpful in treatment for arthritis, gout, palsy, paralysis and sciatica. Direct the sting to the area needed. The sting may last all day.
Culinary uses: Young tender shoots are edible cooked as a potherb, steamed, or in soups. Pink underground stems are edible. Nettle beer. The juice was once used to curdle milk. Cooking and/or drying the herb inactivates the stinging hairs. Hang a bunch of Nettles in the kitchen to deter flies. Energetics: Bitter, Salty, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Touching the fresh plant can cause a burning rash. A Nettle sting can be soothed with a poultice of Yellow Dock, Plantain or Nettle juice. Avoid eating the raw plant unless it is very young and you are very brave. Due to cystolitins, older leaves tend to irritate the kidneys more than young leaves.
Interaction: Avoid if taking any of the following ; Anticonvulsants ,Barbiturates ,Benzodiazepines ,Drugs for insomnia ,Tricyclic antidepressants, ACE inhibitors ,Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers ,Diuretics. Antiplatelets Anticoagulants include heparin and warfarin.

PLANTAIN Parts Used: Leaves.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Expectorant, Decongestant, Demulcent, Diuretic, Hemostatic, Mucilaginous, Refrigerant, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Blood Poisoning, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colitis, Cough, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Enteritis, Gastritis, Laryngitis, Rhinitis, Tuberculosis, Ulcers, Urinary Infections
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Plantain clears heat and removes excess fluid from the body while at the same time soothes inflammation and irritated tissues.
Topical Uses: Bleeding, Blepharitis, Boils, Conjunctivitis, Hemorrhoids, Insect Stings, Poison Ivy, Snakebites, Sore Throat, Toothache, Wounds
Topical Applications: It is a supreme herb for the topical healing of damaged tissue. Poultice for toothache, and poultice or salve for wounds, bleeding, boils, bee stings, hemorrhoids and poison ivy. Gargle for sore throats. Eyewash for blepharitis and conjunctivitis.
Culinary uses: Young leaves may be finely chopped and eaten raw or cooked. Energetics: Sweet, Salty, Bitter, Cool, Dry.

RED CLOVER Parts Used: Flowers, young leaves.
Properties: Alterative, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Diuretic, Expectorant, Nutritive, Phytoestrogenic, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Arthritis, Blood Clots, Bronchitis, Cancer, Cough, Eczema, Gout, Menopause, Psoriasis, Tuberculosis, Tumors, Whooping Cough
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Syrup.
Red Clover helps to calm coughs, reduce skin inflammations and improve general health.
Topical Uses: Arthritis, Burns, Conjunctivitis, Gout, Insect Bites, Lymphatic Congestion, Tumors, Vaginitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice for burns, wounds, sores, tumors and insect bites. Compress for pain from arthritis and gout. Salve for lymphatic swelling. Eyewash for conjunctivitis. Douche for vaginitis.
Culinary uses: Young flowers and leaves are edible in salads and sandwiches in small amounts. Older flowers and leaves can be served cooked. Flowers and seeds are added to bread. Roots are also edible as a cooked vegetable. When cooked, Red Clover is better digested and less likely to cause bloating. Used in wine. Energetics: Sweet, Salty, Cool.
Interaction: Antiplatelets ,Anticoagulants, Oral Contraceptives, Anticancer drug tamoxifen,. Allergy drugs, Antifungal drugs ,,Cancer drugs ,Drugs for high cholesterol . Heparin, Oestrogens (Combined),Ticlopidine,Warfarin.

SAINT JOHN'S WORT Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Anodyne, Antibacterial, Antidepressant, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Antiviral, Astringent, Cholagogue, Expectorant, Nervine, Sedative, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: AIDS, Anxiety, Cough, Depression, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Grief, Herpes, HIV, , Insomnia, Irritability, Jaundice, Menopause, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Ulcers, Viral Infections
Internal Applications: St. John's Wort is currently used to treat mild to moderate depression. Studies suggest that hypericin may have monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties, though this is not the only way that the herb works. St. John's Wort also appears to influence brain levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, and preliminery studies suggest that it may inhibit functioning of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It may take a couple of months of use before one experiences the full benefits of the herb's antidepressant properties. Saint John's Wort is currently being researched as an antiviral agent for HIV. Saint John's Wort oil can help heal damaged nerves when used internally and topically.
Topical Uses: Arthritis, Backache, Bruises, Burns, Electric Shock, Hemorrhoids, Herpes, Hysteria, Nerve Pain, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Sunburn, Tumors, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: Saint John's wort oil, made only from the fresh plant, is a beautiful shade of red and is used to treat bruises, burns, wounds, back pain, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, sunburn, tumors, herpes and nerve pain. Rub liniment or oil on spinal cord for arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia, paralysis, electric shock and hysteria.
Culinary uses: Young leaves in salads. Liqueurs. Energetics: Bitter Sweet, Cold, Dry.
Contraindications: May cause some people to be more photosensitive. Some people may experience dermatitis from the plant. Do not take if any taking medical drugs.

SELF HEAL Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Cholagogue, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Liver Stimulant, Styptic, Tonic, Vermifuge, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Bleeding, Colic, Conjunctivitis, Convalescence, Convulsions, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Dysmenorrhea, Edema, Fever, Flatulence, Gastritis, Gout, Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids, Hepatitis, Hypertension, Injury, Jaundice, Laryngitis, Liver Weakness, Lymphatic Congestion, Pharyngitis, Sore Throat, Vertigo, Worms, Wounds
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Ursolic acid exhibits diuretic and anti-tumor activity.
Topical Uses: Bruises, Burns, Cuts, Gingivitis, Hemorrhoids, Mouth Sores, Rash, Sore Throat, Sprains, Thrush, Wounds
Topical Applications: Use as a poultice for hemorrhoids, rashes, bruises, burns, cuts, sprains and wounds. Mouthwash for sores, gum problems and thrush. Sore throat gargle. Salve herb. Eyewash. Douche for leukorrhea.
Culinary uses: Young plant can be eaten raw or cooked. Energetics: Bitter, Pungent, Cool, Dry.
No Known Interaction.

VALERIAN Parts Used: Root, rhizome.
Properties: Anodyne, Antispasmodic, Antibacterial, Astringent, Carminative, Muscle Relaxant, Nervine, Sedative.
Internal Uses: Aggressiveness, Anxiety, Convulsions, Delerium, Dysmenorrhea, Epilepsy, Headache, Hyperactivity, Hypertension, Hypochondria, Hysteria, Insomnia, Irritable Bowel, Migraine, Muscle Soreness, Nervous Breakdown, Nervousness, Neuralgia, Pain, Premenstrual Syndrome, Restlessness, Shingles, Shock, Stress, , Trauma, Vertigo
Internal Applications: Tea (do not boil), Tincture, Capsules.
Valerian is a smooth muscle and skeletal relaxant, as well as a premier sedative that aids in anxiety, stress and insomnia. Recent studies indicate that valepotriates and valeric acid can bind to the same receptor sites in the brain as benzodiazepine drugs. It is a benzodiazepine like valium. It reduces hypertension due to stress and reduces pain from shingles.
Topical Uses: Rheumatism Topical Applications: Use as a poultice on painful areas in the body, and as a bath herb for rheumatic pain. Used as bait to attract rats. Cats love the smell of it and like to play with an old sock stuffed with Valerian.
Culinary uses: Young leaves are eaten as a spring green. Energetics: Pungent, Bitter, Warm, Dry.
Contraindications: Large doses can cause some people to feel depressed, nauseous, headachy and lethargic. Some individuals, especially those already overheated, may find Valerian stimulating rather than sedating if the body's natural enzymes do not convert the volatile oils in Valerian into valerianic acid. Do not use for long periods of time. Not suggested during pregnancy, except in very small doses. Not for people with very low blood pressure or hypoglycemia.
Interactions: Avoid if taking following medications. Anticonvulsants ,Barbiturates ,Benzodiazepines,,Drugs for insomnia ,Tricyclic antidepressants, Allergy drugs, Antifungal, Cancer drugs,Drugs for high cholesterol

VIOLET Parts Used: Leaves, flowers.
Properties: Alterative, Antifungal, Antiseptic, Demulcent, Diuretic, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Laxative.
Internal Uses: Acne, Anger, Asthma, Boils, Breast Cancer, Bronchitis, Colds, Cysts, Eczema, Fever, Fibrocystic Breast, Gout, Grief, Headache, Lung Cancer, Lymphatic Congestion, Mastitis, Melanoma, Postoperative Recovery, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Sore Throat, Thread Veins, Throat Cancer, Tongue Cancer, Tumors, Ulcers, Whooping Cough
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Syrup for coughs and lung congestion.
Violet leaf tea is safe, gentle and can be used as a substitute for baby aspirin. It is a mild laxative and also used for cancers of the breast, lung, skin, throat and tongue.
Topical Uses: Breast Cancer, Breast Cysts, Cancer, Corns, Headache, Melanoma, Sore Throat, Tinnitus, Warts
Topical Applications: Compress or poultice for breast cysts and cancers (including breast and skin). Also apply a cloth soaked in Violet tea to the back of the neck to treat headaches. Use in ointment for corns and warts. Oil infused with Violets is used to treat tinnitus. Gargle for sore throat. At one time, wearing a garland of Violets around the head was used to prevent dizziness, hangovers and headaches.
Culinary uses: As long as the leaves are heart shaped, they are edible in salads or as a potherb. Flowers are edible and make a beautiful garnish. Freeze flowers into ice cubes for a touch of elegance. Violet vinegar is made from the flowers. One can also make Violet sherbet and candied Violets. Energetics: Pungent, Bitter, Cold, Moist.
Contraindications: Leaves contain saponins and if eaten in very large quantities can cause digestive distress. Eating the roots may cause vomiting.

YARROW Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Carminative, Cholagogue, Circulatory Stimulant, Diaphoretic, Digestive Tonic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Hypotensive, Sedative, Stomach Tonic, Tonic, Urinary Antiseptic.
Internal Uses: Anorexia, Appetite Loss, Bright's Disease, Catarrh, Chickenpox, Colds, Coronary Thrombosis, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Dysmenorrhea, Eczema, Enteritis, Fever, Flatulence, Flu, Gastritis, Hay Fever, Hemorrhage, Hepatitis, Hot Flashes, Hyperacidity, Internal Bleeding, Kidney Inflammation, Measles, Menorrhagia, Placenta Delivery, Pneumonia, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Rheumatism, Shigella
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
It is used for catarrh due to allergies. Yarrow helps to relax peripheral blood vessels, thereby improving circulation. Its diaphoretic properties help open the pores and aid in the elimination of waste material. Achilletin and achilleine aid in blood coagulation. Yarrow contains several anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving constitutents, such as azulene and salicylic acid.
Topical Uses: Asthma, Balding, Bleeding, Eczema, Gingivitis, Hay Fever, Hemorrhoids, Insect Repellent, Leukorrhea, Migraine, Nosebleeds, Oily Skin, Toothache, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice of fresh leaves helps to stop bleeding of wounds and cuts. Fresh leaves are placed in the nose to stop nosebleeds and treat migraines. Use as a bath herb. Treat asthma and hay fever by inhaling herb while boiling in water. Makes a facial steam and toner for oily skin. Wash for eczema. Rub Yarrow on the skin to repel insects. Compress for varicose veins. Hair rinse for hair loss. Enema or compress for hemorrhoids. Chew fresh leaf for a toothache. Mouthwash for inflamed gums. Douche for leukorrhea. Poultice for spider bites. Place herb on rocks in a sauna or sweat lodge.
Culinary uses: Young bitter leaves and flowers are chopped and added to salads, dips and liqueurs. Used in Swedish beer to increase the intoxicating effects. When cows eat Yarrow, it gives their milk an unpleasant flavor.
Energetics: Bitter, Sweet, Pungent, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Overuse may cause skin photosensitivity, dizziness and headaches in some people. Avoid during pregnancy, except immediately after birth when Yarrow can help deliver the placenta. . No Known Interactions

Elder Parts Used: Leaves, flowers.
Properties: Alterative, Antispasmodic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Laxative, Stimulant.
Internal Uses: Acne, Catarrh, Chills, Colds, Fever, Flu, Gout, Headache, Measles, Obesity, Respiratory Infection, Rheumatism Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
A syrup of the berries is used to prevent colds and flu. The berries are a nutrient-rich restorative tonic and given after childbirth to help build the blood. The berries are also used in weight loss programs when taken as juice or capsules.
Topical Uses: Eye Inflammation, Inflammation, Sore Throat
Topical Applications: Flowers make an anti-inflammatory wash, salve or eyewash, and gargle for sorethroat. Also used in cosmetic preparations such as skin wash, toner, lotion and hair rinse.
Culinary uses: Flowers can be battered or fried plain, added to muffins, pancakes and vinegars. Berries made into pie, cobblers, puddings, jam, pastries, ice cream and syrup. Berries can also be made into cordial and wine. Flowers are often made into a non-alcoholic champagne. Energetics: Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid in cases of fluid depletion, as Elder activates the release of fluids. Avoid using red berried Elders, as many of them are poisonous. Cook ripe berries first before consuming them in any quantity. Although elder bark and root are used medicinally, they can be strongly purgative and emetic and are best avoided or used when recommended by a competent health practitioner.Elderberry: No Known Interactions. Elderflower: Do not use if taking drugs that lower blood sugar levels and the drug theophylline

HAWTHORN Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, berries (collected after first hard frost).
Properties: Astringent, Cardiotonic, Carminative, Diuretic, Hypotensive, Vasodilator.
Internal Uses: Angina, Arteriosclerosis, Blood Clots, Hemorrhoids, High Cholesterol, Hypertension, Hypotension, Infertility, Insomnia, Loose Teeth, Obesity, Pulmonary Edema, Varicose Veins
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Paste, Syrup.
It is a mild astringent. Hawthorn increases the body's ability to utilize oxygen and the heart's ability to utilize calcium. It can actually help regulate both high and low blood pressure and slowly break down cholesterol and fat deposits. It strengthens the contractive force of the heart and gently dilates and relaxes the coronary blood vessels. Hawthorn can also be used to strengthen joint lining, collagen and spinal discs. In China, it is used for weight loss.
Culinary uses: Fruits can be eaten raw or made into pemmican, jam and soup. Hawthorn is so effective as a medicine in softening hard substances that the Chinese use it in cooking tough old chickens. Added to wine.
Energetics: Sour, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Using Hawthorn may potentiate the effects of heart medications. Consult with a competent health professional, as the medication dosage may need to be lowered. Use with caution in cases of colitis and ulcers.
Avoid if taking :Digoxin. albuterol, clonidine, Catapres, the ophylline and related drugs for asthma ,Viagra.

OAK Parts Used: Bark, galls (growths that are produced in reaction to fungi or insects).
Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Astringent, Hemostatic, Styptic, Tonic.
Internal Uses: Anal Prolapse, Bloody Urine, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids, Uterine Prolapse
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
The high tannin content is responsible for a wide range of its activity. Tannins bind with protein of the tissues, thus making them impermeable to bacterial invasion and infection, while at the same time strengthening the tissues.
Topical Uses: Bleeding Gums, Burns, Capillary Weakness, Dermatitis, Eczema, Hemorrhoids, Insect Bites, Laryngitis, Leukorrhea, Nosebleeds, Ringworm, Sore Throat, Tonsillitis, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: Gargle or mouthwash for laryngitis, pharyngitis, sore throat and tonsillitis. Mouthwash for bleeding gums. Compress for burns, cuts, eczema, contact dermatitis, hemorrhoids, ringworm, varicose veins and weak capillaries. Enema, suppository and/or sitz bath for hemorrhoids. Douche for leukorrhea. Snuff for nosebleeds. Leaves as a poultice for insect bites.
Culinary uses: Acorns (best from White Oak) are processed by leaching out the tannins in water for at least 24 hours, then grinding into a meal. Acorns can also be roasted as a coffee substitute.
Energetics: Pungent, Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Oak galls are extremely astringent; use only in small quantities. Use Oak bark for no longer than one month continuously.


WILLOW Properties: Alterative, Anaphrodisiac, Analgesic, Anodyne, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antirheumatic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Digestive Tonic, Febrifuge, Tonic, Vermifuge.
Internal Uses: Arthritis, Backache, Colic, Dysentery, Dyspepsia, Fever, Gonorrhea, Gout, Headache, Heartburn, Hot Flashes, Joint Inflammation, Malaria, Migraine, Night Sweats, Pain, Rheumatism, Urinary Infections
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Only Black Willow is an anaphrodisiac, while all species are a mild antiseptic. Willow, along with the herb Meadowsweet, is often known as the source of salicylic acid, a precursor to the original aspirin. The excretion of salicylic acid in the urine helps soothe an irritated urinary tract. It inhibits prostaglandin production, which reduces inflammation.
Topical Uses: Burns, Dandruff, Gingivitis, Insect Bites, Tonsillitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Use as a mouthwash for sore gums, gargle for tonsillitis, hair rinse for dandruff, compress and poultice for burns, insect bites and wounds, and foot soak for sweaty feet. Willow is an excellent material for making baskets and dowsing rods.
Culinary uses: Young shoots can be gathered when the weather first warms and the inner bark is edible and rich in vitamin C. Inner bark can be eaten raw but is best if dried and made into a flour. Young leaves are also edible. Leaves can be used as livestock fodder.
Energetics: Bitter, Cold, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid use if allergic to aspirin. Incompatible with iodine.

MAKING HERBAL REMEDIES

INFUSIONS Standard Quantity: Pot = 20g dried herb or 30 g fresh herbs to 500ml water Standard Dosage: Take 1 cup 3 times a day
Storage: Store in a fridge or cool place for up to 24 hours
The medicinal value of many herb's lie in their volatile oils, which will disperse into the air if a lid is not used, so a teapot is best to use. Always check the recommended dosage and quantity of herb to use as some herb’s are significantly stronger than others.
1. Place the herb in the pot with freshly boiled water. 2 Leave to infuse for 5-10 minutes before straining. add a teaspoon of honey to taste if desired.
Infusions are generally used for the aerial parts of the plant such as the leaves and flowers.

DECOCTIONS Standard Quantity: 20g dried or 40g fresh herb (or mixture of herb) to 750 ml cold herb, reduced to about 500 ml after simmering.
Standard Dosage: 1 cup 3 times a day Storage: store in the fridge or cool place for up to 48 hours.
1. Place the herb's in a saucepan. Cover with cold water and bring to the boil. Simmer for 20-30 minutes, until the liquid is reduced by about a third.
2. Strain and use as required.
Decoctions are generally made using the roots, bark, and berries of the plant.

TINCTURES Standard Quantity: 200g dried /300g fresh herb chopped to 1 litre alcohol of 35-40%. Standard Dosage: Take 1 tsp (5 ml) 3 times a day diluted in 25 ml water or fruit juice.
Storage: Store in sterilised, dark glass bottles, in a cool dark place for up to 2 years.
1. Place the herb in a large clean glass jar and pour on the alcohol, ensuring that the herb is covered. Close and label the jar. Shake well for 1-2 minutes then store in a cool dark place for 2 weeks, shaking the jar every 2 - 3 days.
2. Pour the mixture through a muslin bag or cloth and collect the liquid. Wring the cloth to collect the remaining liquid. Discard the leftover herb.
3. Pour the liquid into clean, dark bottles using a funnel. Label with date bottled.
Tinctures are made by soaking the herb in alcohol, this encourages the active plant ingredients to dissolve, and giving tinctures a relatively stronger action than infusions and decoctions. They are convenient to use and last longer.
CAUTION: alcoholic tinctures should be avoided by pregnant women and those with gastric inflammation. Adding 5 ml of tincture to a small glass of boiling water and leaving it for 5 minutes will allow the alcohol to evaporate. To make non-alcoholic tinctures replace the alcohol with vinegar.

SYRUPS Standard Quantity: 500 ml infusion or decoction to 500g honey or sugar. Standard Dosage: Take 1-2 teaspoons 3 times a day
Storage; Store in dark glass bottles in a cool place for up to 6 months
1. Pour the infusion/decoction into the pan into the pan. Add sugar/honey. Gently heat until all honey/sugar is dissolved and the mixture has a syrupy consistency. Remove from the heat and cool.
2. Pour the cooled syrup into sterilised jars using a funnel and store in a cool dark place. Seal the jars with cork stoppers as syrups tend to ferment.
Honey and unrefined sugars are effective preservatives. They have a soothing action and therefore are perfect for cough mixtures as well as relieving sore throats. They can disguise the taste of unpalatable herbs and are therefore appreciated by children

OINTMENTS Standard Quantity: 60g dried or 150g fresh herb to 500g of petroleum jellies Standard Application; apply a little 3 times a day
Storage; Store in sterilised, dark glass jars for up to 3 months
Ointments can be made with dozens of bases. A solid and relatively grease free ointment can be made with by melting 140g of coconut oil with 120g beeswax and 100g of powdered herb. A less solid ointment can be made, for conditions such as nappy rashes/skin rashes by combining olive oil and beeswax. 60g of beeswax with 500 ml of olive oil and 120g of dried
Or 300g of fresh herb.
1. Melt the petroleum jelly or wax in a glass bowl set in a pan of boiling water. Add the herb and simmer for 15 minutes.
2. Pour the mixture into a jelly bag or through some cloth and allow the liquid to filter through.
3. Wearing rubber gloves, squeeze as much of the hot herb mixture as possible through the bag into the jug.
4. Quickly pour the molten mixture into jars before it sets in the jug. Label the jars.
Ointments form a separate layer on the surface of the skin. They protect against injury or inflammation of damaged skin and carry active medicinal constituents to the affected area. Ointments are useful in conditions such as haemorrhoids, or where protection is needed from moisture, as in chapped lips and nappy rash.

CREAMS Standard Quantity: 30g dried herb or 75g fresh to 150g emulsifying wax, 70g glycerine and 80 ml water.
Standard Application: Rub a little into the affected area 3 times a day. Storage; as in ointment.
Making a cream involves combining oil/fat and water in an emulsion. If the process is rushed, the oil and water may separate. Unlike ointments, creams blend well with the skin and have the advantage of being cooling and soothing while at the same time allowing the skin to breathe and sweat.
1. Melt the emulsifying wax in a glass bowl set in a pan of boiling water, add the glycerine, water and herb while stirring and simmer for three hours.
2. Strain through a jelly bag or cloth. Let it cool, then with a spatula, place the set cream into dark jars. Store in the fridge.
ESSENTIAL OILS: Essential oils can be added to ointments and creams can be stirred in just before straining.

POULTICES Standard Quantity: sufficient herb to cover affected area Standard Application: Apply a new poultice every 2-3 hours
A poultice is a mixture of fresh, dried or powdered herb's that is applied to an affected area. Poultices are used to ease nerve or muscle pains, sprains or broken bones, and to draw pus from infected wounds, ulcers or boils.
1. Simmer the herb for 2 minutes. Squeeze out any excess liquid, rub some oil on to the affected area to prevent sticking and apply the herb while hot (be careful not to burn the person!)
2. Bandage the herb securely in place. Leave on for up to 3 hours, as required.
A poultice of self-heal relieves sprains and fractures, while St. John’s Wort can help muscle or nerve pains. Slippery elm powder combined with marigold makes a useful poultice for drawing boils and wounds.

Inhalations: Add 5-10 drops of essential oil to 1 litre of steaming hot water or an infusion of 25g herb to 1 litre of water .Cover the head and bowl with a towel and inhale for about 10 minutes. After a steam inhalation, stay in a warm room for 15 minutes to allow the airways to adjust and any catarrh to clear.

UTENSILS: Use glass, enamel or stainless steel pots and pans .Do not use aluminium as this potentially toxic element is easily absorbed by herbs.


ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

DOSAGE
Never exceed stated dosages; doubling it will not make the medicine twice as effective.
Before taking a remedy, check the cautions.
Adult dosage is generally 1 cup 3 times a day for infusions and decoctions; tinctures and syrups are 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 ml) 3 times a day.
For infants and children the dosages are 6- 12 months-1/10 of adult dose, 1-6 years - 1/3 of adult dose, 7-12 years - ½ adult doses.
Do not give babies under 6 months any internal herbal (or other) medicine without professional advice. However, many herb's can be taken by mothers who breast feed, the benefits of the herb's being safely passed on to the baby.
The elderly, due to a slower metabolism, may require less than the full adult dose. People over 70 should take ¾ of the adult dose.

How Long To Take Remedies; Take remedies until symptoms disappear. If there is no improvement within 2-3 weeks or if the condition worsens, consult a professional practitioner.
Please consult a Doctor or qualified Herbalist / Health Practitioner for health problems, as any condition which persists shows an underlying imbalance and should be addressed by a qualified practitioner.
Home Herbal Remedy workshops are meant to empower you, enabling you to use what is around you to prevent illness and to treat day-to-day problems, they are not meant to be used as a substitute for medical advice.
Be sure of your plant identification!
Never exceed stated dosage.
Always consult a qualified practitioner during pregnancy.

Chamomile: flowers are used in as an anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, nervine, stomachic, tonic, vasodilatory. The flowers contain various volatile oils including proazulenes. Upon steam distillation these proazulenes produce chamazulene; this is remarkably anti-allergenic and is useful in the treatment of asthma and hay fever. The flowers are sometimes added to cosmetics as an anti-allergenic agent. Chamomile flower tea is used as a sedative and is good for insomnia and many other nervous conditions. The tea has anti-inflammatory properties, good for rheumatism, arthritis, and other painful swellings. It is also an antispasmodic for intestinal and menstrual cramps, relieving gas pains, acts as a very mild but efficient laxative, and loosens tight muscles. Milder tea in large doses is given throughout the day for fevers, sore throats, the aches and pains due to colds, flu, and allergies. It is nervine and sedative especially suited to teething children and those who have been in a highly emotional state over a long period of time. Applied externally as a wash or compress for skin inflammations, sunburn, burns, and added to bath for relaxing tired, achy muscles and feet, and softening the skin. The flowers are made into a salve for use on haemorrhoids and wounds. The dried herb is made into potpourri and herb pillows, and is burned for aromatherapy. The dried flowers are used as an insect repellent. An infusion of the flowers is used as a hair shampoo, especially for fair hair...

PLANTAIN Parts Used: Leaves.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Expectorant, Decongestant, Demulcent, Diuretic, Hemostatic, Mucilaginous, Refrigerant, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Blood Poisoning, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colitis, Cough, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Enteritis, Gastritis, Laryngitis, Rhinitis, Tuberculosis, Ulcers, Urinary Infections
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Plantain clears heat and removes excess fluid from the body while at the same time soothes inflammation and irritated tissues.
Topical Uses: Bleeding, Blepharitis, Boils, Conjunctivitis, Hemorrhoids, Insect Stings, Poison Ivy, Snakebites, Sore Throat, Toothache, Wounds
Topical Applications: It is a supreme herb for the topical healing of damaged tissue. Poultice for toothache, and poultice or salve for wounds, bleeding, boils, bee stings, hemorrhoids and poison ivy. Gargle for sore throats. Eyewash for blepharitis and conjunctivitis.
Culinary uses: Young leaves may be finely chopped and eaten raw or cooked. Energetics: Sweet, Salty, Bitter, Cool, Dry.

RED CLOVER Parts Used: Flowers, young leaves.
Properties: Alterative, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Diuretic, Expectorant, Nutritive, Phytoestrogenic, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Arthritis, Blood Clots, Bronchitis, Cancer, Cough, Eczema, Gout, Menopause, Psoriasis, Tuberculosis, Tumors, Whooping Cough
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Syrup.
Red Clover helps to calm coughs, reduce skin inflammations and improve general health.
Topical Uses: Arthritis, Burns, Conjunctivitis, Gout, Insect Bites, Lymphatic Congestion, Tumors, Vaginitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice for burns, wounds, sores, tumors and insect bites. Compress for pain from arthritis and gout. Salve for lymphatic swelling. Eyewash for conjunctivitis. Douche for vaginitis.
Culinary uses: Young flowers and leaves are edible in salads and sandwiches in small amounts. Older flowers and leaves can be served cooked. Flowers and seeds are added to bread. Roots are also edible as a cooked vegetable. When cooked, Red Clover is better digested and less likely to cause bloating. Used in wine. Energetics: Sweet, Salty, Cool.
Interaction: Antiplatelets ,Anticoagulants, Oral Contraceptives, Anticancer drug tamoxifen,. Allergy drugs, Antifungal drugs ,,Cancer drugs ,Drugs for high cholesterol . Heparin, Oestrogens (Combined),Ticlopidine,Warfarin.

SAINT JOHN'S WORT Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Anodyne, Antibacterial, Antidepressant, Anti-inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Antiviral, Astringent, Cholagogue, Expectorant, Nervine, Sedative, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: AIDS, Anxiety, Cough, Depression, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Grief, Herpes, HIV, , Insomnia, Irritability, Jaundice, Menopause, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Ulcers, Viral Infections
Internal Applications: St. John's Wort is currently used to treat mild to moderate depression. Studies suggest that hypericin may have monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties, though this is not the only way that the herb works. St. John's Wort also appears to influence brain levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, and preliminery studies suggest that it may inhibit functioning of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It may take a couple of months of use before one experiences the full benefits of the herb's antidepressant properties. Saint John's Wort is currently being researched as an antiviral agent for HIV. Saint John's Wort oil can help heal damaged nerves when used internally and topically.
Topical Uses: Arthritis, Backache, Bruises, Burns, Electric Shock, Hemorrhoids, Herpes, Hysteria, Nerve Pain, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Sunburn, Tumors, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: Saint John's wort oil, made only from the fresh plant, is a beautiful shade of red and is used to treat bruises, burns, wounds, back pain, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, sunburn, tumors, herpes and nerve pain. Rub liniment or oil on spinal cord for arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia, paralysis, electric shock and hysteria.
Culinary uses: Young leaves in salads. Liqueurs. Energetics: Bitter Sweet, Cold, Dry.
Contraindications: May cause some people to be more photosensitive. Some people may experience dermatitis from the plant. Do not take if any taking medical drugs.

SELF HEAL Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Alterative, Antibacterial, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Cholagogue, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Liver Stimulant, Styptic, Tonic, Vermifuge, Vulnerary.
Internal Uses: Acne, Bleeding, Colic, Conjunctivitis, Convalescence, Convulsions, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Dysmenorrhea, Edema, Fever, Flatulence, Gastritis, Gout, Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids, Hepatitis, Hypertension, Injury, Jaundice, Laryngitis, Liver Weakness, Lymphatic Congestion, Pharyngitis, Sore Throat, Vertigo, Worms, Wounds
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Ursolic acid exhibits diuretic and anti-tumor activity.
Topical Uses: Bruises, Burns, Cuts, Gingivitis, Hemorrhoids, Mouth Sores, Rash, Sore Throat, Sprains, Thrush, Wounds
Topical Applications: Use as a poultice for hemorrhoids, rashes, bruises, burns, cuts, sprains and wounds. Mouthwash for sores, gum problems and thrush. Sore throat gargle. Salve herb. Eyewash. Douche for leukorrhea.
Culinary uses: Young plant can be eaten raw or cooked. Energetics: Bitter, Pungent, Cool, Dry.
No Known Interaction.

HAWTHORN Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, berries (collected after first hard frost).
Properties: Astringent, Cardiotonic, Carminative, Diuretic, Hypotensive, Vasodilator.
Internal Uses: Angina, Arteriosclerosis, Blood Clots, Hemorrhoids, High Cholesterol, Hypertension, Hypotension, Infertility, Insomnia, Loose Teeth, Obesity, Pulmonary Edema, Varicose Veins
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules, Paste, Syrup.
It is a mild astringent. Hawthorn increases the body's ability to utilize oxygen and the heart's ability to utilize calcium. It can actually help regulate both high and low blood pressure and slowly break down cholesterol and fat deposits. It strengthens the contractive force of the heart and gently dilates and relaxes the coronary blood vessels. Hawthorn can also be used to strengthen joint lining, collagen and spinal discs. In China, it is used for weight loss.
Culinary uses: Fruits can be eaten raw or made into pemmican, jam and soup. Hawthorn is so effective as a medicine in softening hard substances that the Chinese use it in cooking tough old chickens. Added to wine.
Energetics: Sour, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Using Hawthorn may potentiate the effects of heart medications. Consult with a competent health professional, as the medication dosage may need to be lowered. Use with caution in cases of colitis and ulcers.
Avoid if taking :Digoxin. albuterol, clonidine, Catapres, the ophylline and related drugs for asthma ,Viagra.


YARROW Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Bitter Tonic, Carminative, Cholagogue, Circulatory Stimulant, Diaphoretic, Digestive Tonic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Hypotensive, Sedative, Stomach Tonic, Tonic, Urinary Antiseptic.
Internal Uses: Anorexia, Appetite Loss, Bright's Disease, Catarrh, Chickenpox, Colds, Coronary Thrombosis, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Dysmenorrhea, Eczema, Enteritis, Fever, Flatulence, Flu, Gastritis, Hay Fever, Hemorrhage, Hepatitis, Hot Flashes, Hyperacidity, Internal Bleeding, Kidney Inflammation, Measles, Menorrhagia, Placenta Delivery, Pneumonia, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Rheumatism, Shigella
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
It is used for catarrh due to allergies. Yarrow helps to relax peripheral blood vessels, thereby improving circulation. Its diaphoretic properties help open the pores and aid in the elimination of waste material. Achilletin and achilleine aid in blood coagulation. Yarrow contains several anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving constitutents, such as azulene and salicylic acid.
Topical Uses: Asthma, Balding, Bleeding, Eczema, Gingivitis, Hay Fever, Hemorrhoids, Insect Repellent, Leukorrhea, Migraine, Nosebleeds, Oily Skin, Toothache, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice of fresh leaves helps to stop bleeding of wounds and cuts. Fresh leaves are placed in the nose to stop nosebleeds and treat migraines. Use as a bath herb. Treat asthma and hay fever by inhaling herb while boiling in water. Makes a facial steam and toner for oily skin. Wash for eczema. Rub Yarrow on the skin to repel insects. Compress for varicose veins. Hair rinse for hair loss. Enema or compress for hemorrhoids. Chew fresh leaf for a toothache. Mouthwash for inflamed gums. Douche for leukorrhea. Poultice for spider bites. Place herb on rocks in a sauna or sweat lodge.
Culinary uses: Young bitter leaves and flowers are chopped and added to salads, dips and liqueurs. Used in Swedish beer to increase the intoxicating effects. When cows eat Yarrow, it gives their milk an unpleasant flavor.
Energetics: Bitter, Sweet, Pungent, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Overuse may cause skin photosensitivity, dizziness and headaches in some people. Avoid during pregnancy, except immediately after birth when Yarrow can help deliver the placenta. . No Known Interactions

LADY'S MANTLE Parts Used: Leaves, flowering shoots.
Properties: Anti-inflammatory, Astringent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Hemostatic, Liver Decongestant, Vulnerary, Tonic.
Internal Uses: Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Hemorrhage, Menorrhagia, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Rheumatism
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Lady's Mantle aids blood coagulation and promotes tissue healing. It reduces inflammation and clears heat.
Topical Uses: Acne, Conjunctivitis, Freckles, Laryngitis, Leukorrhea, Mouth Sores, Skin Dryness, Vaginal Discharge, Vaginitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice for wounds. Bolus for vaginal discharge, douche for vaginal infection and leukorrhea. Enema. Eyewash for conjunctivitis, mouthwash for sores and following tooth extraction. Gargle for laryngitis. Juice and facial steam for acne. Lotion to soften rough skin and to lighten freckles and birthmarks.
Culinary uses: Young leaves are added to salads. Energetics: Bitter, Cool, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid during pregnancy, except that it can be taken 10 days before expected birth in order to prevent excessive bleeding. No Known Interaction

MEADOWSWEET Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Properties: Analgesic, Antacid, Antiemetic, Anti-inflammatory, Antirheumatic, Urinary Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Sedative, Stomach Tonic.
Internal Uses: Arteriosclerosis, Arthritis, Cellulitis, Cervicitis, Colds, Cystitis, Diarrhea, Dyspepsia, Edema, Epilepsy, Fever, Flu, Gastritis, Gout, Headache, Heartburn, Hyperacidity, Insomnia, Nausea, Pain, Prostatitis, Pulmonary Edema, Rheumatism, Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Vaginitis
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
It is a mild antispasmodic and sedative. Meadowsweet is a forerunner of aspirin as salicylic acid was first synthesized from Meadowsweet in 1835. It is gentler on the stomach than aspirin because Meadowsweet naturally contains buffering agents. Meadowseet clears heat and reduces inflammation. It soothes mucus membranes in the digestive tract and reduces acidity.
Topical Uses: Conjunctivitis, Eye Soreness, Rheumatism
Topical Applications: Eyewash for conjunctivitis and sore eyes. Compress for rheumatic joints. Oil from buds used in perfume. Flowers are soaked in rainwater as a complexion water. The flowers are used as paint brushes. Potpourri.
Culinary uses: Flowers impart an almond fragrance to jam, stewed fruit and wine. Leaves are added to soups. The Shakers used this herb in beer brewing as it enabled them to use less sugar. Energetics: Bitter, Cool.
Contraindications: Avoid if sensitive to salicylates, such as those in aspirin. Interactions: Bismuth Subsalicylate, Ticlopidine.

COMFREY Parts Used: Leaves, root.
Properties: Anodyne, Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, Astringent, Demulcent, Emollient, Expectorant, Hemostatic, Refrigerant, Vulnerary, Yin Tonic.
Topical Uses: Bruises, Burns, Fractures, Hemorrhoids, Skin Dryness, Swellings, Varicose Veins, Wounds
Topical Applications: When applied topically, Comfrey helps to draw infection out of the body. Its constituent allantoin is a known cell proliferant. Use as a bathherb for dry skin. Salves, lotions and poultices for fractures, wounds, bruises, swellings, hemorrhoids, varicosites and burns.
Energetics: Cool, Sweet, Moist.
Contraindications: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids may cause hepatic toxicity, also referred to as veno-occlusive disease. The root is higher in the alkaloid than the leaves. Young leaves are higher in pyrrolizidine than the mature leaves. Other research indicates that Comfrey may have anticancerous activity. Research herbalists are still at odds about this and more research needs to be conducted to determine whether or not Comfrey is safe for external use. Because Comfrey causes rapid wound healing, make sure a wound is clean of any dirt before applying Comfrey.

LAVENDER Parts Used: Flowers, Leaves.
Internal Uses: Asthma, Colic, Cough, Depression, Exhaustion, Fainting, Flatulence, Headache, Insomnia, Nausea, Nervousness, Pain, Stress, Sunburn, Vertigo, Vomiting
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Lavender exhibits activity against diphtheria, typhoid, pneumonia, staph, strep and many flu viruses. Nerve restorative and also useful as an antibacterial agent.
Topical Uses: Acne, Burns, Cellulite, Cold Sores, Eczema, Edema, Fatigue, Halitosis, Headache, Infection, Insect Bites, Insect Repellent, Insect Stings, Irritability, Joint Pain, Lice, Muscle Soreness, Rheumatism, Scabies, Scars, Snakebites, Toothache, Yeast Infection
Topical Applications: Use as a mouthwash for bad breath, foot bath for fatigue, and douche for yeast infections. Essential oil or fresh plant can be rubbed on the body as a bug repellent. It can prevent not only mosquito bites, but also lice and scabies infestation.
Culinary uses: Lavender is added in small amounts to stews and soups in French cooking. An ingredient in Herbes de Provence. Add small amounts in salads, fruit dishes and breads. Energetics: Bitter, Cool, Dry.

LEMON BALM Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Internal Uses: Anxiety, Chickenpox, Colds, Colic, Dementia, Depression, Fever, Flu, Headache, Herpes, Hysteria, Insomnia, Mumps, Nausea, nervousness, Nightmares, Shingles,
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Useful for early senility and acts as a mild hypotensive. Also good for heart palpitations due to nerves. German studies show that the essential oil of Lemon Balm acts upon the part of the brain governing the autonomic nervous system and protect the cerbrum from excessive external stimuli.
Topical Uses: Boils, Eczema, Headache, Herpes, Insect Bites, Shingles
Topical Applications: Use as compress for swellings such as gout. Also applied to eczema and headaches. Use a poultice for boils. Lemon Balm is made into facial toners and beauty lotions. Use as a salve for insect bites or simply rub the fresh leaf on the afflicted area. Used in sachets to repel moths. Used as a bath herb, massage oil, and perfume.
Culinary uses: Add to fish and poultry dishes, marinades, pesto, salad greens, jellies, custards, and garnishes. Used in vinegars and cordials.
Energetics: Sour, Pungent, Cold, Dry.
Contraindications: This is a safe herb for children, and it tastes very good. Lemon Balm can lower thyroid function, which is good for some but not others.

ROSEMARY Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Internal Uses: Anxiety, Asthma, Debility, Depression, Dyspepsia, Epilepsy, Fatigue, Flatulence, Food Poisoning, Headache, Rheumatism, Stress, Vertigo
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Topical Uses: Balding, Canker Sores, Capillary Weakness, Dandruff, Gingivitis, Gray Hair, Headache, Insect Repellent, Muscle Soreness, Neuralgia, Sciatica, Sore Throat
Topical Applications: Skin toner as a rejuvenative. When used on the skin it helps to strengthen the capillaries. Sachets of dried Rosemary are placed in a pillowcase to stimulate dreams. Bath herb acts as a rejuvenative and helps sore muscles. Gargle for sore throat, gum ailments, canker sores and breath freshener. Eyewash. Used in shampoos and conditioners for dandruff, dark hair premature graying and hair loss. It is a potpourri ingredient that repels moths. Essential oil is used in perfume, toothpaste, insect repellants and massage oil, as well as a liniment for neuralgia, sciatica and sore muscles.
Culinary uses: Add to vegetables, soups, breads, biscuits and jellies . Used to flavor seafood and meat dishes. Cooking with Rosemary aids the digestion of fats and starches.
Energetics: Pungent, Bitter, Warm, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid excessively large doses which can cause miscarriage and convulsions.

THYME Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Internal Uses:, Appetite Loss, Asthma, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Colic, Cough, Depression, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Flatulence, Flu, Gastritis, Hangovers, Hay Fever, Headache, Herpes, Hysteria, Indigestion, Laryngitis, Pleurisy, Shingles, Sinusitis, Sore Throat, Stomachache, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Whooping Cough, Worms
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture, Capsules.
Small amounts are a sedative whereas larger amounts are a stimulant. It is used against hookworm, roundworms, and threadworms. Thyme warms and stimulates the lungs, expels mucus and relieves congestion. It also helps deter bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Both thymol and carvacrol have a relaxing effect upon the gastrointestinal tract's smooth muscles.
Topical Uses: Acne, Arthritis, Asthma, Athlete's Foot, Blemishes, Bronchitis, Bruises, Burns, Candida, Colds, Crabs, Dandruff, Dental Decay, Depression, Eye Soreness, Flu, Fungal Infection, Halitosis, Insect Bites, Insect Stings, Laryngitis, Lice, Mastitis, Mouth Sores, Muscle Soreness, Parasites, Plaque, Rheumatism, Ringworm, Scabies, Sciatica, Sore Throat, Thrush, Tonsillitis, Warts, Wounds
Topical Applications: Gargle and mouthwash for dental decay, laryngitis, mouth sores, plaque formation, sore throat, thrush, tonsillitis, and bad breath. Compress for lung congestion such as asthma, bronchitis, colds and flu. Poultice for wounds, mastitis, insect bites and stings. Wash for fungal infections such as athlete's foot and ringworm, and use against parasites such as crabs, lice and scabies. Douche for Candida. Compress for bruises. Use as an eyewash for sore eyes and as a hair rinse for dandruff. Use a salve on acne, blemishes, burns and wounds. Use as a bath herb for sore muscles, arthritis, and colds. Essential oil is added to soaps and antidepressant inhalations. Added to massage oils for sore muscles, rheumatism and sciatica, and applied directly to warts. Used as a strewing herb in Middle Ages.
Culinary uses: Added to soups, stews, vegetables, chicken, jams, fruit salads, bouquets garni, gumbos, and Benedictine liqueur. Aids in the digestion of high fat foods. Used to preserve meat. Thyme honey, made when bees collect pollen from thyme flowers, is excellent.
Energetics: Pungent, Bitter, Warm, Dry.

SAGE Parts Used: Above ground portion.
Internal Uses: Anxiety, Blood Clots, Candida, Colds, Congestion, Cystitis, Depression, Diabetes, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Fever, Flatulence, Flu, Hot Flashes, Indigestion, Insomnia, Laryngitis, Lymphatic Congestion, Memory Loss, Menopause, Migraine, Night Sweats, Profuse Perspiration, Rheumatism, Spermatorrhea, Staphylococcus, Worms
Internal Applications: Tea, Tincture,Capsules.
Sage tends to have a drying effect and has even been used for excessive saliva production in those with Parkinson's Disease. It also helps women who have excessive menses.
Topical Uses: Asthma, Dandruff, Eczema, Gingivitis, Gray Hair, Insect Bites, Laryngitis, Leukorrhea, Mouth Sores, Oily Scalp, Psoriasis, Sore Throat, Tonsillitis, Wounds
Topical Applications: Poultice of fresh leaves for insect bites and wounds. Gargle for mouth sores, laryngitis, sore throat, sore gums and tonsillitis. Wash for eczema and psoriasis. Hair rinse for dandruff and oily scalp, and to darken gray hair. Douche for leukorrhea. Facial steam, breath freshening toothpaste ingredient. Fresh leaves are rubbed on teeth as a whitening agent. Used in deodorants as an antiperspirant. Dried herb is burned for purification of negative energy. Leaves have traditionally been smoked to relieve asthma. It helps promote mental alertness just by smelling the leaves and has long been used by students cramming for tests.
Culinary uses: Improves the digestion of fatty foods and acts as a natural preservative. Add Sage leaves sparingly to salads, beans, breads, stuffing, soups, stews, cheese dishes, fish and meat dishes. One can make Sage vinegar, Sage butter and Sage wine. Leaves and flowers can be candied.
Energetics: Pungent, Warm, Dry.
Contraindications: Avoid large doses during pregnancy or for extended periods. Nursing mothers should avoid large doses as it can dry up breast milk. Those with epilepsy may be adversely affected by the thujone content and should avoid large doses of Sage.


Some Recipes to try!

Arthritis/Gout/Aches Oil
1 tablespoon fresh crushed rosemary 3 teaspoons celery seeds, crushed 1 large chile pepper, crushed 250 ml oil
Sterilize a clear glass jar. Place all ingredients into the jar. Close tightly. Shake, then place in a sunny spot for 10 days, shaking every day. Strain into dark sterilized jars.

Athlete's Foot Remedy
2 to 4 tablespoons vinegar 1 pint water
Soak your feet in this solution for 20 minutes, three times a day. Vinegar discourages fungal growth by increasing the surface acidity of the skin. Can add Calendula and/or other anti-fungal herbs. After soaking feet, apply undiluted tea tree oil, which has powerful anti-fungal properties. Apply it to the affected area two to three times a day.

Horehound Cough Drops
4 handfuls fresh or frozen horehound leaves or 2 handfuls dried leaves
1/2 teaspoon crushed aniseed, fennel seeds or licorice root tea
3 crushed cardamom seeds 12 ounces granulated sugar 12 ounces brown sugar 1 pint water 1 bowl ice cold water
Place the herbs in a pint of simmering water for 20 minutes on low heat. Strain the liquid into a small bowl, pressing the herbs to express all the "juice." Return the liquid to the pan, adding both sugars. Over a medium flame, boil until the sugar is dissolved.

To make the drops: drop 1/2 teaspoon of the mixture, which should be a syrup, into the cold water. When the syrup hardens, immediately add the syrup in 1/2 quantities to the cold water, removing immediately with a slotted spoon. Wrap individual drops in 2 inch squares of wax paper, twisted at each end, until ready to use. Keep refrigerated until needed, then suck on the drops and let their soothing qualities calm a sore throat or stuffy nose.
CAUTION: Do not use more than 12 drops in one day as diarrhoea may occur. Do not use licorice if you have high blood pressure.

Sore Throat Gargle
Sage tea Honey
Brew sage tea. Add a little honey. Strain out the leaves, and gargle often with the resulting liquid.

Sinus Headache Pillow
1/2 cup Chamomile 1 part crushed spearmint leaf 1 part crushed peppermint leaf 1 part lavender buds
1 part eucalyptus leaf 1 part rosemary leaf
Mix all ingredients together in a bowl. Cut two pieces of material 10 x 4 inches and sew together. Making a bag, leave one end open and stuff the bag. Sew up the open end.

Muscle Liniment
3 or 4 ounces ground pepper 1 pint apple cider vinegar
Mix ground pepper and vinegar. Leave the mixture in a dark place for two weeks, shaking it twice a day.
Strain to remove the pepper before your rubdown

Soothing Lemon Gel
1 cup aloe vera gel 2 tablespoons witch hazel 1 tablespoon cornstarch 8 drops lemon oil
Mix the aloe vera, cornstarch and witch hazel in the top of a double boiler on the stove top. Gently heat the mixture until it has thickened to a honey-like consistency, stirring occasionally. Mix in the lemon oil, then remove the pan from the heat and cool the mixture. When cooled, pour into an airtight container. Use on the affected areas.

Hydrating Facial Recipe
Steaming 3 chamomile tea bags 1 tablespoon fennel seeds 1 (1-quart) pot
In pot, brew tea bags and fennel seeds. Bring to boil and let steep for 5 minutes. Remove tea bags and bring to boil again. Remove from stove.
Place your face (skin should be free of all makeup and cream) over the steam, keeping your eyes closed. Use a large towel to cover your head and the pot. Save the tea solution. Chilled, it makes a great skin tonic.


Lotions and Potions

Cream – comfrey, lady’s mantle, plantain, chamomile

COMFREY: Eases Pain, brings down inflammation ,fights infection, moistens the skin and repairs damaged tissue, Used for damage to tendons ,muscles, bruises, burns, fractures ,haemorrhoids, skin dryness, swellings, varicose veins and wounds
LADY'S MANTLE: Aids blood coagulation and promotes tissue healing. It reduces inflammation and clears heat. Used for acne, freckles, skin dryness and wounds
PLANTAIN: Soothes inflammation and irritated tissues. Used for Bleeding, Boils, Haemorrhoids, Insect Stings and Wounds. It is an excellent herb for the healing of damaged tissue.
CHAMOMILE flowers are used in external preparations for skin inflammations, sunburn, burns, achy muscles, haemorrhoids, wounds and softening the skin.
The combination of the above herbs in one cream mean the cream can be used for a variety of causes: Bruising, haemorrhoids, insect stings, sunburn, varicose veins, damage to tendons/muscles, achy muscles or for dry / chapped skin.

Aching Bath bag – Meadowsweet, Comfrey, Yarrow, Epsom Salts with Ginger and Rosemary Essential Oils

Lung Syrup
THYME: Used for asthma, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Cough Flu, Pleurisy, Sore Throat, Tuberculosis and Whooping Cough.
RED CLOVER: Used for Bronchitis, Cancer, Cough, Tuberculosis, and Whooping Cough.
LEMON: has a high vitamin c content that improves resistance to infection, a valuable for colds and flus.

Herbal Oil: Rosemary Oil
Uses: Balding, Canker Sores, Capillary Weakness, Dandruff, Gingivitis, Gray Hair, Headache, Insect Repellent, Muscle Soreness, Neuralgia, Sciatica, Sore Throat. Used to flavour seafood and meat dishes. Cooking with Rosemary aids the digestion of fats and starches.

Infusion – Scullcap Tea
Especially good in the evening if worrying affects your sleep.


Herb Safety
Herbs are medicines and should be respected as such. We have to be aware of safety especially in this day and age as many people are taking medications. Herbs can interact with these medications in different ways some positive and some negative.

My general advice would be to avoid herbal medicine unless under the guidance of a qualified practitioner if you are taking medications.

Another rule of thumb is to avoid like and like. If you were taking steroids you would be advised not to take licorice root which has a steroidal effect or cleavers if you were taking diuretics etc.

Never exceed stated dosages; doubling it does not make the medicine twice as effective.

Adults:1 cup 3 times a day, infusions & decoctions

Tinctures/Srups: 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 ml) 3 times a day.

Infants & children: 6- 12 months-1/10 of adult dose, 1-6 years - 1/3 of adult dose, 7-12 years - ½ adult dose.

Do not give babies under 6 months any internal medicine without professional advice some herbs can be taken by mothers who breast feed, the benefits being safely passed on to the baby.

The elderly, due to a slower metabolism should take ¾ of the adult dose.


How Long To Take Remedies; Take remedies until symptoms disappear.

If there is no improvement within 2-3 weeks or if the condition worsens, consult a professional practitioner.

Please consult a qualified practitioner for any ongoing condition.
Ÿ
Always check interactions/contraindications.

Be sure of your plant identification!

Never exceed stated dosage.

Always consult a qualified practitioner during pregnancy.

Always consult a qualified practitioner if you are taking medications.

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Comment by An Draíocht on May 31, 2013 at 8:38

Hi Penpusher,TINCTURES Standard Quantity: 200g dried /300g fresh herb chopped to 1 litre alcohol of 35-40%. Standard Dosage: Take 1 tsp (5 ml) 3 times a day diluted in 25 ml water or fruit juice.
Storage: Store in sterilised, dark glass bottles, in a cool dark place for up to 2 years.
1. Place the herb in a large clean glass jar and pour on the alcohol, ensuring that the herb is covered. Close and label the jar. Shake well for 1-2 minutes then store in a cool dark place for 2 weeks, shaking the jar every 2 - 3 days.
2. Pour the mixture through a muslin bag or cloth and collect the liquid. Wring the cloth to collect the remaining liquid. Discard the leftover herb.
3. Pour the liquid into clean, dark bottles using a funnel. Label with date bottled.
Tinctures are made by soaking the herb in alcohol, this encourages the active plant ingredients to dissolve, and giving tinctures a relatively stronger action than infusions and decoctions. They are convenient to use and last longer.
CAUTION: alcoholic tinctures should be avoided by pregnant women and those with gastric inflammation. Adding 5 ml of tincture to a small glass of boiling water and leaving it for 5 minutes will allow the alcohol to evaporate. To make non-alcoholic tinctures replace the alcohol with vinegar.

Balms:A solid and relatively grease free ointment can be made with by melting 140g of coconut oil with 120g beeswax and 100g of powdered herb. A less solid ointment can be made, by combining olive oil and beeswax. 60g of beeswax with 500 ml of olive oil and 120g of dried
Or 300g of fresh herb.
1. Melt the petroleum jelly or wax in a glass bowl set in a pan of boiling water. Add the herb and simmer for 15 minutes.
2. Pour the mixture into a jelly bag or through some cloth and allow the liquid to filter through.
3. Wearing rubber gloves, squeeze as much of the hot herb mixture as possible through the bag into the jug.
4. Quickly pour the molten mixture into jars before it sets in the jug. Label the jars.

Here's a nice recipe :)
Chickweed Pesto
2 cloves of garlic, 3 Tablespoons of pine nuts or sunflower seeds, ¼ tsp. salt, 2 packed cups chopped fresh chickweed, ½ cup olive oil, and ½ cup Parmesan cheese in a blender...

Chickweed is high in vitamin C, vitamin A, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, zinc, phosphorus, manganese, sodium, selenium, and silicon.

Comment by penpusher on May 27, 2013 at 14:09

Thanks. Very interesting. I think I have chickweed growing in abundance around where I live but can't find a really good picture to help me identify. Do you know of a link you could recommend and perhaps a recipe for a tincture and ointment? Thanks again.

Comment by Ginger Vonricken on April 9, 2012 at 10:55

Every house should have a medicinal herb garden.....much easier to go out and nab some fennel for an upset tummy than take western yuk....And making your own creams lotions and potions is so beneficial.....when one has the time.

Comment by colin jepsson on March 15, 2012 at 18:49

i have it saved, ty 1's again

Comment by colin jepsson on March 15, 2012 at 18:47

ok ty v much, will try this

Comment by Spirality on March 15, 2012 at 18:23

this page IS native-herbs-1.html
try making a PDF file instead... select "Print" from the file menu, and chose "Adobe PDF" as the PRINTER.

Comment by colin jepsson on March 15, 2012 at 18:06

hi, have tried to save this page, but will not allow me due to the source file not being found, native-herbs-1.html. where can i get this page pls

Comment by An Draíocht on July 26, 2011 at 15:11
You're welcome Howard..happy to blah herbs anytime...my mission to put folk back into 'Folk Medicine' :)
Comment by It, Which is That on July 23, 2011 at 17:22
Thanks :)
<3

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